Radishes are edible root vegetables whose botanical name is Raphanus sativus meaning white beauty. This is ironical since the roots are not always white. The root color ranges from pink to red to purple and even green and black. However, the most common root colors are pink and white. The roots can grow up to 24 inches long with the leaves growing up to 5 inches long. However, the root size depends on the variety of the radish.